I think you might be better off on the internet and searching for electonic faultfinding and inspection at component level.
Basic electronics books tend not to cover this. Although I think Digital Fundementals by Floyd touched on testing logic devices. The long way round is to get to a level where you can tell what the circuit should be doing and then finding out what it is doing. This can be difficult without schematics and some background knowledge of what you are testing. If you don't know what the circuit is doing then you can go down to inspecting and testing individual components which has its own problems.
Was there any sort of electronics devices in particular that you were interested in? If you have something faulty to hand I can probably help you along with it based upon what I'd do if you have access to test equipment.
I think the place to start is find out how good your component recognition skills are. Can you tell the difference between an 0805 inductor and a capacitor by looking at it? You can tell by measuring it usually but failed ceramic capacitors generally go short which would make them seem like an inductor with an ohm meter.
I might have some PDFs but I think they are on my external drive at work.